суббота, 23 мая 2015 г.

Alaska. The agreement between Russia and USA

Article in Russian. Keywords: Alaska, The agreement between Russia and USA



Аляску изначально никто не собирался продавать...

Заключённый договор не является ни договором купли-продажи, ни договором аренды, он является договором седы, или передачи физического управления без совершения продажи.

О договоре вокруг Аляски.
Внимательно изучив доступный текст договора удалось совершенно точно определить ситуацию с Аляской:

1 - Договор был подписан только на английском языке. На русском языке его не существует как юридического документа.

2 - Текст договора выглядит так:

[American Historical Documents, 1000–1904.The Harvard Classics. 1909–14.]
[Treaty with Russia]
[(1867)]

[CONVENTION between the United States of America and His Majesty the Emperor of Russia, for the Cession of the Russian Possessions in North America to the United States, Concluded at Washington, March 30, 1867; Ratification Advised by Senate, April 9, 1867; Ratified by President, May 28, 1867; Ratification Exchanged at Washington, June 20, 1867; Proclaimed, June 20, 1867.]

" The United States of America and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, being desirous of strengthening, if possible, the good understanding which exists between them, have, for that purpose, appointed as their Plenipotentiaries, the President of the United States, William H. Seward, Secretary of State; and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, the Privy Counsellor Edward de Stoeckl, his Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States;
And the said Plenipotentiaries, having exchanged their full powers, which were found to be in due form, have agreed upon and signed the following articles:

Article I
His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, agrees to cede to the United States, by this convention, immediately upon the exchange of the ratifications thereof, all the territory and dominion now possessed by his said Majesty on the continent of America and in adjacent islands, the same being contained within the geographical limits herein set forth, to wit: The eastern limit is the line of demarcation between the Russian and the British possessions in North America, as established by the convention between Russia and Great Britain, of February 28—16, 1825, and described in Articles III and IV of said convention, in the following terms:
“III Commencing from the southernmost point of the island called Prince of Wales Island, which point lies in the parallel of 54 degrees 40 minutes north latitude, and between the 131st and 133d degree of west longitude (meridian of Greenwich), the said line shall ascend to the north along the channel called Portland Channel, as far as the point of the continent where it strikes the 56th degree of north latitude; from this last-mentioned point, the line of demarcation shall follow the summit of the mountains situated parallel to the coast, as far as the point of intersection of the 141st degree of west longitude (of the same meridian); and finally, from the said point of intersection, the said meridian line of the 141st degree, in its prolongation as far as the Frozen Ocean.
“IV With reference to the line of demarcation laid down in the preceding article, it is understood—
“1st That the island called Prince of Wales Island shall belong wholly to Russia” (now, by this cession to the United States).
“2d That whenever the summit of the mountains which extend in a direction parallel to the coast, from the 56th degree of north latitude to the point of intersection of the 141st degree of west longitude, shall prove to be at the distance of more than ten marine leagues from the ocean, the limit between the British possessions and the line of coast which is to belong to Russia as above mentioned (that is to say, the limit to the possessions ceded by this convention), shall be formed by a line parallel to the winding of the coast, and which shall never exceed the distance of ten marine leagues therefrom.”
The western limit within which the territories and dominion conveyed are contained passes through a point in Behring’s Straits on the parallel of sixty-five degrees thirty minutes north latitude, at its intersection by the meridian which passes midway between the islands of Krusenstern of Ignalook, and the island of Ratmanoff, or Noonarbook, and proceeds due north without limitation, into the same Frozen Ocean. The same western limit, beginning at the same initial point, proceeds thence in a course nearly southwest, through Behring’s Straits and Behring’s Sea, so as to pass midway between the northwest point of the island of St. Lawrence and the southeast point of Cape Choukotski, to the meridian of one hundred and seventy-two west longitude; thence, from the intersection of that meridian, in a southwesterly direction, so as to pass midway between the island of Attou and the Copper Island of the Kormandorski couplet or group, in the North Pacific Ocean, to the meridian of one hundred and ninety-three degrees west longitude, so as to include in the territory conveyed the whole of the Aleutian Islands east of that meridian.

Article II
In the cession of territory and dominion made by the preceding article, are included the right of property in all public lots and squares, vacant lands, and all public buildings, fortifications, barracks, and other edifies which are not private individual property. It is, however, understood and agreed, that the churches which have been built in the ceded territory by the Russian Government, shall remain the property of such members of the Greek Oriental Church resident in the territory as may choose to worship therein. Any Government archives, papers, and documents relative to the territory and dominion aforesaid, which may now be existing there, will be left in the possession of the agent of the United States; but an authenticated copy of such of them as may be required, will be, at all times, given by the United States to the Russian Government, or to such Russian officers or subjects as they may apply for.

Article III
The inhabitants of the ceded territory, according to their choice, reserving their natural allegiance, may return to Russia within three years; but if they should prefer to remain in the ceded territory, they, with the exception of uncivilized native tribes, shall be admitted to the enjoyment of all the rights, advantages, and immunities of citizens of the United States, and shall be maintained and protected in the free enjoyment of their liberty, property, and religion. The uncivilized tribes will be subject to such laws and regulations as the United States may from time to time adopt in regard to aboriginal tribes of that country.

Article IV
His Majesty, the Emperor of all the Russias, shall appoint, with convenient despatch, an agent or agents for the purpose of formally delivering to a similar agent or agents, appointed on behalf of the United States, the territory, dominion, property, dependencies, and appurtenances which are ceded as above, and for doing any other act which may be necessary in regard thereto. But the cession, with the right of immediate possession, is nevertheless to be deemed complete and absolute on the exchange of ratifications, without waiting for such formal delivery.

Article V
Immediately after the exchange of the ratifications of this convention, any fortifications or military posts which may be in the ceded territory shall be delivered to the agent of the United States, and any Russian troops which may be in the territory shall be withdrawn as soon as may be reasonably and conveniently practicable.

Article VI
In consideration of the cession aforesaid, the United States agree to pay at the Treasury in Washington, within ten months after the exchange of the ratifications of this convention, to the diplomatic representative or other agent of His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, duly authorized to receive the same, seven million two hundred thousand dollars in gold. The cession of territory and dominion herein made is hereby declared to be free and unincumbered by any reservations, privileges, franchises, grants, or possessions, by any associated companies, whether corporate or incorporate, Russian or any other; or by any parties, except merely private individual property-holders; and the cession hereby made conveys all the rights, franchises, and privileges now belonging to Russia in the said territory or dominion, and appurtenances thereto.

Article VII
When this convention shall have been duly ratified by the President, of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, on the one part, and, on the other, by His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, the ratifications shall be exchanged at Washington within three months from the date thereof, or sooner if possible.

In faith whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed this convention, and thereto affixed the seals of their arms.

Done at Washington, the thirtieth day of March, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven.William H. Seward [L. S.]Edward de Stoeckl [L. S.]

3 - Текст или перевод на русский язык не приводится мной по причине того, что нет юридически заверенной и достверной копии перевода текста договора на русский язык, и потому любой перевод на русский язык является юридически не достоверным.

4 - По тексту договора ясно, что Аляска была "... to cede to the United States..." (Статья I договора).

5 - Поскольку в тексте договора не указано слово "sell", а указано слово "cede", то стоит разъяснить, что это слово обозначает:
"To cede means to grant or give over physical control to another or to relinquish possession or control over. This does not entail a sale; it is the provision of permissions, hence a grant of a leasehold or estate interest subordinate to or derived from the owner's continuing interest. "

Поскольку это не юридический документ, а определение термина, то его можно перевести на русский, и выглядеть это будет так:
"Cede обозначает грант или передачу физического контроля другому, или передать во владение и контроль. Это не влечёт за собой продажу; это - условие разрешений, следовательно грант лизгольда или состояния подчинённого интереса, или полученный из устойчивого интереса владельца".

6 - итог:
Согласно договору Аляска юридически принадлежит России, но передана в физическое управление США. Этот договор не влечёт за собой продажу.
При этом сам договор предусматривает передачу США прав на управление территориями не являющимися территориями частной собственности.

   Также по договору все церкви на территории Аляски принадлежат РПЦ.

  Таким образом Аляска не была продана США, и не была передана в аренду США. Она была передана по договору седы, то есть по договору передачи физического управления над территорией без продажи территории Соединённым Штатам Америки.

    Поскольку в договоре седы не был указан срок передачи территории в физическое управление, то Россия имеет полное право в любой момент потребовать Аляску обратно, поскольку по заключённому с США договору Аляска продолжает принадлежать России, а США передано только право на физическое управление территорией.

   В условиях, когда не обозначен срок действия договора, он признаётся действующим до момента выставления требования владельцем о возврате права физического управления. Т.е. до тех пор, пока Россия не заявит о своём праве на физическое управление территорией, которое должно быть ей возвращено немедленно Соединёнными Штататми Америки при первом же заявлении об этом со стороны России.
Вот такие выводы пришли при разборке ситуации вокруг Аляски. И те, кто говорят, что Аляска была продана США и те, кто говорят, что Аляска была сдана в аренду на 99 (100) лет не правы.
Заключённый договор не является ни договором купли-продажи, ни договором аренды, он является договором седы, или передачи физического управления без совершения продажи.

7 - грант Лизгольда - это владение на правах аренды.

  Не смотря на весь этот разбор текста договора, в учебниках истории при Сталине и позже, Аляска была записана как сданая в аренду! Т.е., именно так это понимается и понималось Российской стороной. Понятие "Седа" у нас понимается как аренда.

  Все эти события с Аляской происходили на фоне дружеских отношений с США. Россия приняла активное участие в гражданской войне на стороне Севера и Линкольна. Фактически это Россия победила в войне против Англии на североамериканском континенте. Дальнейшие события Россия рассматривает как предательство союзника в войне. Как предательство со строны США и всех американцев. 

История кратко:
150 years of Russian feats in America! The U.S. national anthem Russian   http://russ-history.blogspot.ru/2013/09/russia-was-defending-america-america-is.html

Продолжение темы:  Украина не существует. Подделка документов http://russ-history.blogspot.ru/2016/01/lawyers-ministry-of-foreign-affairs-un.html

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